What is Vacuum?

Vacuum is produced by removing gas from a container. It is not possible to remove all the gas from a container by pumping; particles still remain in the container, producing a pressure. Zero pressure is therefore not possible in practice. The pressure relative to the absolute vacuum is called the absolute pressure. Thus there is still a positive pressure even in a good vacuum. Atmospheric pressure is about 1 bar absolute, and manometers which zero at atmospheric pressure and show negative in vacuum, measure a relative pressure against atmospheric pressure. Note that the negative values do not represent a negative absolute pressure.

A gas having a negative pressure relative to the atmosphere is called vacuum. By definition there are four levels of vacuum, depending on the size of the negative relative pressure:

rough vacuum
fine vacuum
high vacuum
ultra-high vaccum
1013 - 1 mbar
1 - 10-3 mbar
10-3 - 10-7 mbar
<10-7 mbar
1.013 x 105 - 100 Pa
100 - 0.1 Pa
0.1 - 10-5 Pa
<10-5 Pa